Electron having energy less than 50eV generated in the specimen by inelastic collision of electronic beam and the specimen when incident electron beam collided with the specimen
BSE (Backscattered Electron)
Electron emitted backwards when incident electron beam collided with the specimen
Overview of SEM analysis : Device
1) How small the size of electron beam shot into specimen can get is the key of high resolution of SEM
2) ELECRTON LENS
Reduces crossover made up in Electron gun
Controls Spot size
Changes location of Prove crossover depending on optic axis
Generating electron ray
Lens system controlling electron ray
Scan Coil deciding magnification by deciding scanning area on the specimen
Stigmator eliminating astigmatism
Detector collecting Signal gained from specimen
CRT showing information gained from Detector
Principle of magnification of SEM
Interaction volume and signal
SE / BSE Detector
SE forms image with information from bump reflection / generally used to compose the overall image by observing the surface shape.
Images are formed by the component(atomic number) composing the specimen and 발생계수 increases according to the increase of atomic number
SE (Secondary Electron) Detector
Secondary Electron ▷Electron generated on the surface of specimen by the energy gained from inelastic collision with beam electron
Generated by interaction of activated beam electron and weakly vibrating metal
Only small amount of kinetic energy is transferred to secondary electron because the amount of energy in beam electron is very small compared to the electron of specimen.
Most of SEMs are installed Everhart-Thomley (E-T) Detector.
Photons are generated when activated electrons collide with Scintillator. Then, they move into photomultiplier tube by total reflection in optical waveguide. Photons can go through vacuum and quartz window because they are in the form of light. Photons attract current from both poles, collect and go back to current at detectable point.
BSE (Backscattered Electron) Detector
Electrons sent to sample and shot out are scattered to various directions. These are divided into elastic or inelastic scattering of electron.
Elastic scattering of primary electron; Scattered electrons change momentum but energy doesn’t change or change within 1eV. Because P=mv and m doesn’t change, only the direction of speed vector changes. Scattering angle is 0-180° and typically 5°
Elastic scattering is generated between negative electron and positive atomic nucleus.
Some electrons have large scattering angle to be shot outside the sample and these are backscattered electrons.
Lighter part of image is coper and darker part is aluminium in the image by BSE detector
Energy during inelastic scattering is transferred to electrons around atom and kinetic energy in activated electrons is reduced.
Image change depending on Accelerating Voltage
Image change depending on Probe Current
Image distortion depending on Astigmatism
Observation by SEM
Observation of surface image
Observation of cross-section structure
Conclusion. Principle and feature of electron beam analyzing technique